James Augustine Aloysius Joyce is one of the most influential and important writers of the 20th century. His contribution to English literature is undoubtedly significant. He’s also known for the use of the Stream of consciousness technique in his most famous book, Ulysses which is a take on the episodes of Homer’s Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles. Stream of consciousness refers to a narrative mode or method that attempts “to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind” of a narrator.
He was one of the writers belonging to the modernist avant-garde movement. He was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, and literary critic, born on 2 February 1882, at Dublin, Ireland. His parents were John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane “May” (née Murray). He was the eldest of the ten surviving siblings.
He briefly went to Jesuit Clongowes Wood College in County Kildare, followed Christian Brothers-run O’Connell School owing to his fluctuating family finance. He proved to be a brilliant student by excelling at the Jesuit College and graduating from the University College in Dublin in 1902. He moved to mainland Europe in 1904 with his future wife, Nora Barnacle. He worked as an English instructor in Trieste in Austria-Hungary after moving away from Pula(Croatia). He also worked as a correspondence clerk in Rome for eight months and made three visits to Dublin before settling in Trieste until 1915.
In Trieste, He began his literary career by publishing his book of poems Chamber Music and his short story collection Dubliners, and he began serially publishing The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in the English magazine The Egoist. He moved on to Zürich, Switzerland during World War I and started working on Ulysses. He returned to Trieste briefly before going to Paris in 1920 and living there until 1940.
He first published Ulysses in Paris in 1922 but the book was banned in England and The USA because of obscenity. He married Nora in 1930 in London and frequently visited Switzerland for the treatment of his eye problems and psychological help for his daughter, Lucia. During World War II, when Germany occupied France, Joyce shifted his residence to Zurich, Switzerland, where he breathed his last on 13 January 1941.
A creative genius like him is always immortalized in the history of English Literature.
His famous work:
Dubliners (short-story collection, 1914)
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (novel, 1916)
Ulysses (novel, 1922)
Finnegans Wake (1939, restored 2012)
Chamber Music (poems, Elkin Mathews, 1907)
Giacomo Joyce (written 1907, published by Faber and Faber, 1968)
Pomes Penyeach (poems, Shakespeare and Company, 1927)
Collected Poems (poems, Black Sun Press, 1936, which includes Chamber Music, Pomes Penyeach and other previously published works)
Exiles (play, 1918)
Posthumous publications and drafts:
Stephen Hero (precursor to A Portrait; written 1904–06, published 1944)
The Cat and the Devil (London: Faber and Faber, 1965)
The Cats of Copenhagen (Ithys Press, 2012)
Finn’s Hotel (Ithys Press, 2013)
The Critical Writings of James Joyce (Eds. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann, 1959)
Letters of James Joyce Vol. 1 (Ed. Stuart Gilbert, 1957)
Letters of James Joyce Vol. 2 (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1966)
Letters of James Joyce Vol. 3 (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1966)
Selected Letters of James Joyce (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1975)
( Information : Wikipedia)
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